a simple diy arduino controlled cnc machine pen plotter or pcb mill for under us$50.
by：kingtool aluminium machinery2020-03-07
This Instructure is trying to show that a simple CNC machine can be made very easily and quickly, and the price is less than $50. The idea is to assemble it together as soon as possible and as simple as possible, but without affecting the accuracy of the machine. So even though the materials used are very cheap and easy to get, I am happy to note that this machine is still very accurate. ( The wood used was actually extracted from pieces scattered in previous furniture manufacturing. Similarly, yoga mats and rexine debris used to cover plywood are also discarded materials lying around the house). It is obvious that this is a simple machine, using :- To learn how to build a similar machine, check out the video link that comes with it at the end of this manual. I used Arduino Uno for electronics (clone) Control the stepping motor with a simple drive. A SG90 servo has been used to lift the pen up and place it on the writing bed. All of the above hardware is either from my local hardware store ( Mumbai Lamington Road) Or on Ebay in India. Update: Ebay is not now In India, the function is OK, so the next place to get the above parts is either Amazon or plywood, which is the scrap in my previous furniture project. Even the stepping motor was picked from scrap products on the streets of Lamington Road, Mumbai. 150 each. They are from the 23LM series. For software that controls the machine, I have flashed through Arduino uno with GRBL version 0. 9i from Github. Here is the link to the GRBL warehouse, go to the second step, the first point 2 learn how to load GRBL onto Arduino UNO. For my CNC machine I need an adjusted version of GRBL for Robottini, the next step below gives this link as I need to run two stepping motorse. one for the X- Y axis and one Y axis Axis, then pen on Z- Shaft controlled by servo motor. For the GUI ( Graphical user interface , It streams the GCODE to the machine, I used grblcontrol_0. 8. 4. Zip started using the free software InkScape and laser plug-in from here to generate GCODE to draw or etching text or graphics on a CNC machine. In this video, you can see that the machine is writing (Plotting)out some text. The GRBL settings I adjusted to control this machine scroll play at the end of the video. In the video below, the speed has increased a lot (time lapse) See the machine drawing a cat. Drawing cats in real time takes about 4 minutes and a half. The inspiration for making my CNC machine is a series of video tutorials from splatspace edurham. Please note that splatspace edurham uses the bushing as a slider for both the x and y axis, and I decided to use a linear bearing (LM10uu). The linear bearing in my building is smoother than the bushing movement he used in the building. This is basically a personal choice, so decide what you want to use in your own build. Also note that he glued the bushing to the sled on the X-axis and y-axis, while I found it easier & better to clamp them onto the sledge using two hole pipe clamps. The link to the first part of the Splatspace edurham tutorial is as follows :- 7 Part 1 cheap diy cnc factory in Splatspace edurham. Let\'s move on to the next step. . . . . . . . . . . . I\'ll show you the wiring of my machine. This is the way I use EASYDRIVERS to control the stepping motor to connect my machine. This picture is made with Fritzing, which is a very good and easy-to-use software that can make and simulate small circuits. Ignore the dotted line in the image. Peacock and Muslim paintings are made with ballpoint pens as drawing tools on Z-Axis servo. It can be seen that by using a fine pointed pen like Artline 0, the drawings are very detailed and can become finer. There are 4mm exquisite pen-tip drawing pens on the Internet, and the price is about Rs. 80 INR. The way I modify the pen holder is that the refill is pushed to the writing bed by a small spring mounted between the ends The lid of the pen holder and the refill itself. I have explained it in the attached chart. This helps the refill to maintain contact with the writing bed, even if there are slight ups and downs on the surface of the bed. ( The spring pushes the refill down, even if there is a slight depression on the bed, it is necessary to maintain contact with the paper, and if there is a bump on the bed, the refill is allowed to shrink back to the room, such a slight uneven bed is no longer a problem, writing or painting is still very smooth. For the power supply, I used SMPS with 12 volts and 2 amps. Arduino uno connects to the computer via a USB port and flashes with GithubAn\'s GRBL Library. The important thing to keep in mind is that you should first complete all the connections on the breadboard, then connect the arduino to the PC using a USB cable, and then finally switch the power to a 12 v SMPS. The source of the GRBL library I use for my machine is as follows :- Since I need to control two stepping motors and one servo motor, I need GRBL for this version. Drive the servo using pin D11. Use the command M03 Sxxx where xxx is any value between 0 and 255 at 0-180 degrees. For my building I use m03 s00 to lift the pen and m03 s45 to put it on the writing bed. Take a look at this link to Alessandro. G. To view the servo being controlled :- Overall, the cost of the machine is about $48. e Rs. 3340 INR. Here are the reasons for breaking up :- Some parts are purchased from EBAY, but now EBAY does not In India, the next place to get the above parts is Amazon, or the ultimate goal is to make a larger CNC machine capable of laser etching on paper by simply changing the tools on Z, or used as a PCB milling machine or as a router for cutting or engraving woodAxis. I hope you find my guidance useful. Thank you, God bless. 1. Font problem of double-outlines :- The font problem with this CNC pen drawing machine is that the text is drawn as a double Outline, this is not what the user wants. Inkscape solved the problem with a font called Hershey text :-Start with version 091. 0, Inkscape contains the Hershey text extension. If there is already Inkscape 0. With 91 or later installed, simply look up and use this Hershey text extension in the render submenu of the extension menu in Inkscape. Just write down whatever you want in the text box that opens there and press the \"apply\" button. The text you get now will be a single-line version of the text, not a two-line versionoutline kind. You can read more about this here :- Note that Hershey text must be separated by hyphen. So to write something like \"This is a test\", you need to write it like thisis-a- Test \", otherwise your gcode will not compile correctly. But there is a solution to this problem. Explain here :- If you want to write text without double According to the link above, what you should do is :- Write your line of text in any text editor you choose. Then save this file as a PDF file. Open this saved PDF file in Inkscape. Adjust the size according to your CNC Workbench size. Convert an object to a path. Go to the extended menu. Generate the laser Gcode using the J Tech photon laser tool plug-in you have previously installed. 2. How to load GRBL on Arduino UNO :- This is the link to how to do this: please keep in mind that for my machine I have used the GRBL of Robottini as I need to control 2 stepping motors and 1 servo motor The link to the Robottini version of GRBL is loading GRBL onto my arduino uno and I have adjusted the settings of my machine as shown below :- The GRBL settings for my CNC machine are :-Grbl 0. 9i $0 = 3 ( Step pulse (usec)$1 = 25 ( Step idle delay (msec)$2 = 0 ( Reverse shield of stepping Port: 00000000)$3 = 3 ( Dir Port reverse mask: 00000011)$4 = 0 ( Steps to convert, Boolean)$5 = 0 ( Limit pin conversion, Boolean)$6 = 0 ( Probe pin reversal (bool)$10 = 3 ( Status report Shield: 00000011)$11 = 0. 010 ( Connection deviation (mm)$12 = 0. 002 ( Arc tolerance (mm)$13 = 0 ( Report inch (bool)$20 = 0 ( Soft limit of Bool)$21 = 0 ( Hard limit (bool)$22 = 0 ( Cycle of automatic search, Boolean)$23 = 3 ( Looking for dir reverse mask: 00000011)$24 = 200. 000 ( Feeding (mm/min)$25 = 500. 000 ( Finding (mm/min)$26 = 250 ( (Msec)$27 = 1. 000 (homing pull-off, mm)$100 = 259. 762 (x, step/mm)$101 = 259. 762 (y, step/mm)$102 = 250. 000 (z, step/mm)$110 = 500. 000 ( X max rate (mm/min)$111 = 500. 000 ( Maximum rate (mm/min)$112 = 250. 000 ( Maximum rate (mm/min)$120 = 19. 000 ( X accel, mm/sec ^ 2)$121 = 19. 000 ( Y accel, mm/sec ^ 2)$122 = 10. 000 ( Z accel, mm/sec ^ 2)$130 = 200. 000 ( X max travel, mm)$131 = 200. 000 ( Max Travel, mm)$132 = 200. 000 ( Max Travel, mm)3. Replace Easydrivers with the A4988 driver. I have replaced easydriver with A4988 driver to control the stepping motor. The A4988 drivers are easier to configure and, in my experience, they are also cooler to run. You can read more about the A4988 driver here :- My A4988 driver ,( In order for me to get the correct steps and calibration of the stepping motor on the x and y axis) , I have connected MS1 with the 5 v pin of arduino. I have connected MS2 with arduino\'s GND pin. ( Later I realized that MS2 didn\'t need to connect to GND, so I disconnected MS2 from GND, so MS2 didn\'t connect). I have connected MS3 with the 5 v pin of arduino. Connections for other howtomechatronics, such as the link above. com. My CNC wiring diagram was made with fritzing. You can see it in step 3 of this structure. The file is also attached as. Fzz file at the end of this page for you to view and use in FRITZING. Its name is: Sahil CNC grbl with 2 stepping motors and 1 servo line. fzz4. How to calibrate your stepping motor to reach the correct distance. Short video explaining how to calibrate a CNC stepping motor :- There are instructions for this link :- Download a free copy of the spreadsheet to help you with your calibration calculations. Please visit: www. triquetra-cnc. Here\'s another one: this link can also be checked :- How to install the limit switch on the machine: the limit switch helps inform the micro controller/computer limit (boundaries) The level of the CNC machine has been reached. When the axes move to their limits, they touch the switch and activate the switch to stop the machine. You can use these limit switches to relocate the machine shaft to the default start or start position. I don\'t have the Limit switch installed on my CNC machine, but it\'s a good idea to do so. This video of digital spiders shows how to install them. : This page on GITHUB shows you how to connect the limit switch on the machine :- Links to some websites from which you can download the free SVG file to be used on the machine :- Here is a link to a good explanation of the lead screw and belt from the bread board on Youtube :- You can also see this link if you want to assemble a more professional CNC machine. The bread board on Youtube reported again :- Play all the lists now. Will be updated further. Be careful before that. . . . :-) Kingtool Aluminum Doors and Windows Machinery Co., Ltd. has built its reputation on a commitment to providing quality products and services while rapidly responding to international needs for innovative products. Kingtool Aluminum Doors and Windows Machinery Co., Ltd.’s core aim is to afford high-quality products with the concept of manufacturing technology. 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